The dominant theory of internationalization in the West is the ‘infusion’ or ‘integration’ model. In the infusion/integration model, global perspectives are continually infused and integrated into the existing curriculum, campus, and delivery of education. This chapter argues that the theory’s very assumptions about knowledge and practice are tied up with an Anglo-Protestant, capitalist spirit in ways that are seldom discussed. After reviewing those assumptions about knowledge and practice, the chapter offers a definition of ‘humanistic’ or ‘pragmatic’ internationalization as an alternative to the infusion/integration model.
For decades, researchers and policymakers have looked to professional development (PD) as a promising tool to improve teacher practice and student learning. However, despite its promise, PD is widely perceived as being unable to realize its potential. In this conceptual paper, the author suggests that one reason for this gap between PD's potential and its perceived ineffectiveness is its alignment with a sociopolitical framework that prioritizes efficiency. Numerous past attempts to improve PD have failed to address underlying assumptions about teaching, learning, and human relationships embedded in this efficiency framework. As an alternative, the author proposes a new deliberative framework that is more compatible with learning principles and thus more likely to improve learning across contexts and at scale.